Trace minerals are elemental compounds found in foods that our bodies require in small amounts for various functions. They play a crucial role in supporting our overall health, from bone development and immune system function to glucose metabolism and energy production. You can find them in all sorts of foods.

We often hear about the importance of vitamins and macronutrients, but trace minerals are just as essential to our well-being.

The nine key trace minerals we need in our daily diets include chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, and zinc.

By consuming a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources, we can ensure we’re getting the appropriate amount of these trace minerals to optimize our health and maintain optimal body functions.

Today we’ll talk about their benefits, how to get them, and whether it’s worth grabbing for a trace minerals supplement.

Understanding Trace Minerals

We often think of the well-known vitamins and macrominerals. Hence, the popularity of multivitamins, and the insistence for decades on the importance of fruits and vegetables.

The trace minerals have been like the forgotten younger siblings. However, trace minerals, or trace elements, also play a crucial role in many biological processes.

These essential compounds are needed only in minute quantities, but their absence or deficiency can cause serious health problems.

Let’s start by getting familiar with some common trace minerals and how they affect our health. Here are a few examples:

  1. Chromium – Aids in regulating glucose levels and insulin function.
  2. Copper – Supports iron absorption, nerve function, and formation of connective tissue.
  3. Iodine – Essential for normal thyroid function and hormone production.
  4. Iron – Required for oxygen transportation in the blood and energy production.
  5. Selenium – Serves as an antioxidant and supports the immune system.
  6. Zinc – Helps with wound healing, immune function, and the formation of proteins and DNA.

In addition to these trace minerals, our body also requires a certain amount of macrominerals, or major minerals. Examples of macrominerals include calcium, magnesium, and potassium. These minerals are required in larger quantities compared to trace minerals and play a vital role in essential processes such as muscle contractions, maintaining a healthy heartbeat, and building strong bones, to name a few.

It is crucial to understand the fine balance between trace mineral intake and avoiding excessive consumption. Both severe deficiencies as well as excessive amounts can be harmful to our health. Therefore, it’s important to consume these minerals through a well-balanced diet or, in some cases, with the help of supplements under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Including a variety of nutrient-dense foods in our diet can ensure we get the essential trace minerals and macrominerals our body needs. Some great sources of trace minerals include:

  • Leafy green vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Legumes
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Lean meats and seafood

Once again, a healthy diet wins. 

By incorporating these foods into our daily meals, we can support our overall health and well-being, as trace minerals and macrominerals work together in maintaining various bodily functions such as hormone production, metabolism, nerve function, and blood system support.

8 Important Functions Trace Minerals Support

Energy Production

Trace minerals like chromium and manganese play a crucial role in our body’s energy production. Chromium helps in the metabolism of sugar, assisting the hormone insulin to regulate blood sugar levels. Manganese supports the production of proteins and enzymes required for energy production. Deficiencies in these trace minerals can lead to fatigue and a weakened immune system.

Blood Health

Iron is a vital trace mineral, essential for carrying oxygen in our blood through the proteins hemoglobin and myoglobin. Adequate iron levels help prevent anemia, a condition marked by fatigue, weakness, and reduced immunity. Women, particularly during their reproductive years, require a higher intake of iron due to menstruation-related iron losses.

Bone Health

Trace minerals such as calcium and manganese are critical for maintaining bone health and preventing osteoporosis. Calcium is the primary constituent of bones, while manganese aids in bone development and the synthesis of cartilage. A balanced intake of these trace minerals ensures strong and healthy bones throughout our lifetime.

Immune Function

We need various trace minerals, such as zinc and selenium, to support our immune system. They help in the production of antibodies, protecting our body from infections and illnesses. An adequately functioning immune system reduces the risk of various diseases and promotes overall health.

Thyroid Function

The trace element iodine is essential for maintaining proper thyroid function. Our thyroid produces hormones that regulate cell growth, metabolism, and energy production. Iodine deficiency can lead to hypothyroidism, a condition characterized by fatigue, weight gain, and other health issues.

Growth and Development

For healthy growth and development, our body requires trace minerals like zinc and copper. Zinc is needed for cell growth, DNA synthesis, and proper functioning of the immune system. Copper supports the absorption of iron and nerve function. Insufficient intake of these essential minerals can adversely impact our overall health.

Enzyme Activity

Trace minerals act as key components of enzymes, promoting numerous biochemical reactions in our bodies. For instance, manganese is essential for proper metabolism and the activation of enzymes that help in wound healing.

DNA Synthesis

DNA comic book

Certain trace elements, such as zinc and copper, contribute significantly to our body’s DNA synthesis. They aid in the replication of genetic material, ensuring the proper development and functioning of our cells.

In summary, trace minerals are essential for various body functions, such as energy production, blood health, bone development, immune function, thyroid function, growth and development, enzyme activity, and DNA synthesis. Ensuring a balanced intake of trace minerals in our diet promotes overall health and well-being.

Specific Trace Minerals Benefits


Iron plays a crucial role in our body. It is present in the hemoglobin of red blood cells, responsible for transporting oxygen to various tissues. Additionally, iron contributes to the formation of myoglobin, a protein that supplies oxygen to muscles. A deficiency in iron can lead to anemia, resulting in fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.


Zinc is an essential trace mineral that is involved in numerous biological processes, such as enzyme activity, DNA synthesis, and cell division. It also plays a vital role in our immune system, helping protect us against infections and illnesses. Sufficient zinc levels are necessary to maintain these essential functions.


Magnesium serves as a key component in maintaining our health. It is essential for energy production, muscle health, and supporting strong bones by working alongside calcium. When magnesium levels are low, individuals may experience muscle aches, fatigue, and even mood disturbances.


Copper contributes to numerous physiological processes, such as blood production, immune system function, as well as growth and development. It is also integral to collagen formation, which is an essential component of our skin, bones, and connective tissues.


Iodine is essential for thyroid function and the production of thyroid hormones, which regulate our metabolism, growth, and cognitive development. Iodine deficiency can lead to an underactive thyroid, resulting in fatigue, weight gain, and impairments in cognitive development.


Selenium is a vital component of our immune system, protecting us against oxidative stress and helping to maintain a healthy metabolism. It is also involved in the synthesis of thyroid hormones and assists in preventing cellular damage caused by free radicals.


Chromium plays a fundamental role in our body by helping to regulate glucose levels through its interaction with insulin. This essential trace mineral assists in maintaining steady blood sugar levels, decreasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.


Manganese is crucial for maintaining the proper functioning of enzymes, playing a role in various metabolic processes, including bone formation and the synthesis of essential proteins. This trace mineral also helps support a healthy immune system and cellular defense mechanisms.


Molybdenum is essential for the proper function of certain enzymes that promote the breakdown of harmful compounds in the body and support bone growth. This trace mineral is significant for maintaining overall health and preventing the negative effects of molybdenum deficiency, such as muscle weakness and visual impairments.


Fluoride is well-known for its role in maintaining strong teeth and bones. This trace mineral helps prevent tooth decay, supports bone mineralization, and enhances bone strength. Ensuring adequate fluoride intake contributes to good oral health and bone health, as well as the prevention of dental cavities.

Sources of Trace Minerals

In this section, we will discuss various sources of trace minerals that are essential for our body’s overall health and wellness. By having a comprehensive understanding of these sources, we can ensure we receive adequate amounts of each essential trace mineral.

Dietary Sources

A well-balanced diet is one of the best ways to obtain essential trace minerals. Here are some food sources rich in trace minerals:

almonds cashews walnuts comic style

  • Iron: Found in red meat, poultry, beans, and whole grains. Iron is crucial for the production of red blood cells.
  • Zinc: Present in red meat, oysters, crab, poultry, beans, nuts, and dairy products. Zinc is essential for a healthy immune system.
  • Magnesium: Found in whole grains, nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy green vegetables. Magnesium supports bone health and muscle function.
  • Copper: Present in organ meats, shellfish, nuts, and seeds. Copper is vital for energy production and iron metabolism.
  • Iodine: Seafood, dairy products, and iodized salt are common sources of iodine. It is essential for proper thyroid function.
  • Selenium: Found in Brazil nuts, seafood, meat, poultry, and enriched grains. Selenium supports the immune system and acts as an antioxidant.
  • Manganese: Present in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts. Manganese is crucial for bone health and enzyme function.


Fit guy with supplement bottle at gym

While it’s always best to get our nutrients from whole foods, sometimes our diets may be lacking in certain trace minerals. In such cases, supplements can be an effective way to fill those gaps. Here are a few supplements to consider:

Mineral Supplement: Specific mineral supplements can be taken for individual trace minerals of which you may have a deficiency. In general, it’s best to find out what you’re deficient in, and go from there. We have guides to help you choose, from the best chromium supplements to the best copper supplements, and the best selenium supplements.

Multivitamin: Multivitamins typically contain a variety of minerals, including trace minerals. Ensure to choose a reputable brand and consult with a healthcare professional.

Remember, though supplements are meant to supplement. So don’t buy a supplement and skimp out on whole foods.

Considerations and Precautions

Daily Required Dose

The daily required dose of trace minerals varies depending on factors such as age, gender, and life stage. It’s essential to be aware of the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) or Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for each trace mineral to ensure you’re consuming an appropriate amount for your specific needs. Be mindful not to exceed the tolerable upper intake level (UL) to avoid toxicity issues.


The bioavailability of trace minerals is crucial for absorption and utilization in the body. The term “bioavailability” refers to the degree to which a nutrient is available for absorption and use in the body. Some trace minerals, like iron, have different forms that differ in bioavailability. For example, heme iron (found in meat) is more bioavailable than non-heme iron (found in plant-based foods). This means, when planning a balanced diet, it’s important to consider the sources of trace minerals to ensure optimal absorption rates.

Potential Deficiencies and Overdose

Deficiencies and overdosing of trace minerals can lead to health issues. For instance, iodine deficiency is a common problem, particularly among pregnant women, which may result in impaired fetal development. On the other hand, excess intake of some minerals like copper and iron can cause toxicity and organ damage. Being aware of the signs and symptoms of deficiencies and toxicity can help prevent health problems.

  • Deficiencies: fatigue, weakness, compromised immune system, anemia, cognitive decline
  • Overdose: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, liver and kidney damage, neurologic disorders

Special Populations

Different population groups may require higher or lower doses of trace minerals. Pregnant and lactating women generally have higher requirements for certain trace minerals like iron, zinc, and iodine to support fetal growth and maintain their own health. Vegetarians and vegans may need to pay attention to their intake of certain minerals, especially iron and zinc, as their plant-based diets may provide lesser bioavailable forms of these minerals.

Understanding the specific needs of each population can help ensure a properly balanced diet, mitigating the risks of deficiencies and toxicity. It’s always a good idea to consult a healthcare professional or a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) for individualized advice on trace mineral intake and possible supplementation.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the top sources of trace minerals in food?

We can find trace minerals in many whole foods, such as nuts, seeds, leafy greens, and even seafood. Some examples include:

  • Iron: spinach, lentils, red meat
  • Zinc: pumpkin seeds, beef, oysters
  • Copper: almonds, mushrooms, dark chocolate
  • Manganese: whole grains, legumes, pineapple
  • Iodine: seaweed, fish, dairy products

How do trace minerals improve hydration?

Trace minerals are essential for maintaining proper hydration in our bodies. When we consume electrolytes (minerals that carry an ionic charge) such as sodium, potassium, and magnesium, they help balance the levels of fluids in our bodies. This balance enables proper absorption of nutrients and efficient removal of waste products.

What is the recommended daily intake of trace minerals?

The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for trace minerals varies depending on age, gender, and life stage. For example, adult men generally require 8 mg of iron per day, while adult women need around 18 mg. Remember that it’s best to consult a healthcare professional for personalized recommendations based on your specific needs.

How do magnesium and ionic trace minerals benefit the body?

Magnesium is crucial for several vital functions in our bodies, including energy production, muscle contraction, and nerve impulse transmission. As an ionic trace mineral, magnesium contributes to maintaining a healthy electrolyte balance and supports proper hydration.

Ionic trace minerals, such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, are essential for optimal health as they carry an electric charge. These charged particles support various bodily functions, including maintaining fluid balance, muscle function, and overall wellness.

Do trace minerals aid in reducing inflammation?

Yes, some trace minerals, such as zinc and selenium, have been linked to reducing inflammation in our bodies. These trace minerals support our immune system, protect cells from oxidative damage, and help reduce the risk of chronic diseases associated with inflammation.

What are the best trace mineral supplements available?

The best trace mineral supplements will depend on your specific needs and preferences. Generally, select a product that is high-quality, made from natural sources, and contains a balanced mix of trace minerals. Consult a healthcare professional for personalized advice on which trace mineral supplement is best suited for your individual requirements.

About the Author

David William Rosales is a writer and strength coach. He’s the head trainer and editor at Roman Fitness Systems. In addition to helping run RFS, he’s also the head editor for, the official website of the Strength and Conditioning Association of Professional Hockey. You can also check out his Instagram, he’s pretty easy on the eyes.

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